Edward I Plantagenet, King of England

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Birth: 17 Jun 1239  Westminster Palace, London

“Sexto decimo kalendas Julii, nocte sequenti, apud Westmonasterium natus est regi filius ex regina sua Alienora. Et rege sic volente aptatum est ei nomen, scilicet AEdwardus”1; “Edward was born at Westminster on the night of 17 June 1239. The news was greeted with great joy. The citizens of London took to the streets and celebrated by torchlight: they felt that they could claim the prince as one of their own number. In the royal chapel the king’s clerks sang Christus Vincit to mark the event. According to Matthew Paris, the general pleasure did not last long, for Henry III made it plain that the messengers sent out to announce the event were to bring back gifts. One courtier commented: ‘God gave us this child, but the king is selling him to us’.”2.

Baptism: 20 Jun 1239 Westminster Abbey

“Qui dico infantulus, regis filius, licet praesens esset archiepiscopus, postea quarto die domino Ottone legato in conventuali ecclesia ipsum baptizante”1; “The ceremony was conducted at Westminster Abbey by the papal legate Otto, in the presence of the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishops of London and Carlisle, the king’s brother Richard earl of Cornwall, and his brother-in-law Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester. The baby was given an English name, reflecting Henry III’s devotion to the cult of St. Edward the Confessor, designed to add to the prestige of the monarchy”2.

Death: 7 Jul 1307 Burgh-by-Sands, Cumberland

“Edward I died on 7 July 1307, at Burgh-by-Sands, a few miles northwest of Carlisle. His health had been poor for some time. The spring seems to have brought some improvement to the king’s health. He was well enough to attend parliament at Carlisle for a time. Edward was certainly not in a fit state to campaign in Scotland, but his determination was such that, on 3 July, he rode out from Carlisle. He was suffering from dysentary, and progress amounted to a bare two miles a day. He spent the night of 6 July at Burgh-by-Sands, and when his servants came to lift him from his bed the next morning, so that he could eat, he died in their arms (Guisborough, 379).”2

Burial: 27 Oct 1307 Westminster Abbey

“Et tunc venerabile dictum corpus venit apud Westmonasterium, ubi similiter honestissimae vigiliae jugiter fiebant circa eum, et missae de die similiter celebrabantur sine numero usque in vigiliam sanctorum Symonis et Judae, quae quidem vigilia accidit in die Veneris. Quo quidem die Veneris praefati domini regis venerabile per omnia corpus [apud] Westmonasterium praedictum debito cum honore fuit reconditum et humatum retro summum altare ibidem in boriali parte”3; “It was not until about 18 October that the body was taken to London, where it was placed first in the monastery of Holy Trinity, and then in St Paul’s, before being carried to its last resting place, Westminster Abbey. The funeral service, on 27 October, was conducted, fittingly, by Edward’s old friend and recent adversary, Anthony Bek, bishop of Durham and patriarch of Jerusalem”2.

Occupation: King of England 1272-1307

Spouse 1:

Princess Eleanor of Castile

Marriage:      1 Nov 1254      Las Huelgas convent, near Burgos, Castile

“No chronicler recorded the date of Eleanor’s wedding. The Bury chronicle states that Edward reached Burgos on 13 October, but he was at Bayonne as late as 9 October, and a Castilian chronicle more reliably puts his Burgos entry on 18 October. Alphonso then knighted Edward and some English companions, as he had insisted on doing from the outset of marriage negotiations. The wedding all but certainly followed on 1 November, the date of Alphonso’s renunciation of his Gascon claims in Edward’s favor, and most likely at the Cistercian convent of las Huelgas near Burgos, the burial place of its founders, Eleanor’s great-grandparents Alfonso VIII and his Plantagenet queen (For the date, Trabut-Cussac, ‘L’administration anglaise’, 7; Ballesteros Beretta, ‘Alfonso X’, 100).”4

Children:

Katherine of England (1261-1264)

Joan of England (1265-1265)

John of England (1266-1271)

Henry of England (1268-1274)

Eleanor of England (1269-1298)

Beatrice(?) of England (1271-1272)

Joan of Acre (1272-1307)

Alphonso of England (1273-1284)

Margaret of England (1275->1333)

Berengaria of England (1276-1277)

Mary of England (1279-1332)

Elizabeth of England (1282-1316)

Edward II (1284-1327)

Spouse 2:

Princess Marguerite of France

Marriage:      10 Sep 1299      Canterbury Cathedral, Kent

“Et in crastino Nativitatis Beate Mariae venit Cantuariam, et vto idus Septembris dominus Robertus Cantuariensis archiepiscopus celebravit sponsalia inter regem et Margaretam in ostio ecclesiae versus claustrum, juxta ostium martyrii Sancti Thomae. Et subsequenter celebravit missam sponsalium ad altare feretri Sancti Thomae”5; “An interlude in the political wrangling occurred on 10 September 1299, when Edward married Margaret of France at Canterbury, in a ceremony conducted by Archbishop Winchelsey, who was, at least briefly, on relatively good terms with the king. The bishops of Durham, Winchester and Chester were present, as were the earls of Lincoln, Warenne, Warwick, Lancaster, Hereford and Norfolk, along with a host of other magnates. After the ceremony, there was a splendid feast, with entertainment provided by a host of minstrels. The festivities took three days in all”2.

Children:

Thomas of Brotherton (1300-1338)

Edmund of Woodstock (1301-1330)

Eleanor of Winchester (1306-1310)

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Sources

1. Matthaei Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora: Volume III, A.D. 1216 to A.D. 1239, Henry Richard Luard (ed.), Rolls Series Volume 57 Part 3 (London: 1876), pp. 539-540.

2. Michael Prestwich, Edward I, Yale English Monarchs (New Haven: 1988), pp. 4, 521, 556-558, 566.

3. Flores Historiarum, Volume III: A.D. 1265 – A.D. 1326, Henry Richard Luard (ed.), Rolls Series Volume 95 Part 3 (London: 1890), pp. 329-330.

4. John Carmi Parsons, Eleanor of Castile: Queen and Society in Thirteenth-Century England, St Martin’s Press (New York: 1995).

5. The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury, Volume II: The Minor Works, William Stubbs (ed.), Rolls Series Volume 73 Part 2 (London: 1880), p. 317.